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Resident Evil

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Resident Evil 

Resident Evil, known as Bio Hazard[3] (バイオ ハザード Baio Hazādo?) in Japan, is a survival horror video game by Capcom originally released in 1996. Initially released for the PlayStationports of the game for the Sega Saturn and Windows soon followed.
The first installment in the Resident Evil series, the game introduces series mainstays Chris Redfield and Jill Valentine, members of an elite task force known as S.T.A.R.S. At the start of the game, players select one of them as they investigate the disappearance of their fellow team members on the outskirts of Raccoon City. Soon the team finds themselves trapped in an old mansion that is infested with zombies. By solving various puzzles, finding items and exploring the mansion, they uncover clues to solve the mystery, battling the various monsters of the mansion along the way using various firearms. Depending on the player's actions, the game ends in different ways. Resident Evil establishes many conventions seen in earlier games of the series, such as the control scheme, the inventory system as well as the typewriter-based saving process.
Originally conceived as a remake of Capcom's earlier horror-themed game Sweet Home, development for the game was directed by Shinji Mikami who took gameplay design cues from the 1992 game Alone in the DarkResident Evil was well received and has been credited with starting the modern survival horror genre. It spawned a multitude of sequels and spin-offs, starting with 1998's Resident Evil 2.
In 2002, a remake of the game was released for the Nintendo GameCube featuring new graphics, voice acting and many gameplay changes. The original game has also been rereleased for the Nintendo DS and onto the PlayStation Network.

Gameplay

The player's character is a member of the S.T.A.R.S. (Special Tactics And Rescue Service) Alpha team law enforcement task force, who is trapped in a mansion populated by dangerous mutated creatures. The objective of the game is to uncover the mystery of the mansion and ultimately escape alive. The game's graphics consist of real time 3D polygonal characters and objects, superimposed over pre-rendered backdrops with pre-determined camera angles. The player controls the character by pushing the d-pad or analog stick left or right to rotate the character and then move the character forward or backwards by the pushing the d-pad up or down.

To fulfill the game's objective, the player uncovers various documents that provide exposition about the game's narrative, as well as clues that help them solve various puzzles within the mansion. Key items are also available that give the player access to other items or new areas. The player can arm their character with weapons to defend themselves from enemies, although the ammunition available for each firearm is limited and the player must learn to conserve the ammunition they have for situations where they will really need it. To restore the character's health, the player uses first-aid sprays or three types of healing herbs that can be mixed together in different combinations for different healing effects. The carrying capacity of the player is limited depending on the character and items that the player does not wish to carry at the moment can be stored into an item box to be retrieved for later use. To save their progress, the player must pick up an ink ribbon and use it on any of the typewriters scattered through key locations in the game. However, the supply of ink ribbons the player can acquire is limited much like the player's ammo and healing supplies.
The various enemies the player encounters include infected creatures like flesh-eating zombies, zombie dogs, giant spiders, crows and artificial creatures with codenames such as Hunter and Chimera, as well as the game's ultimate adversary, a new type of biological weapon known as the Tyrant.
PLOT
Setting
A series of bizarre murders have occurred on the outskirts of Raccoon City, with signs of cannibalism on the victims' remains. The Raccoon Police Department's Special Tactics And Rescue Service (S.T.A.R.S.) are assigned to investigate the murders. S.T.A.R.S. is divided into two teams: Alpha and Bravo. Bravo team is sent first, but after contact with them is lost, Alpha team is sent to investigate their disappearance.
Characters
The player has a choice between Alpha team members Chris Redfield or Jill Valentine as the main character. Jill has more firepower and a lockpick that enables her to access areas and items easily as well as an inventory large enough to hold up to eight items, while Chris has limited firepower but is more durable in terms of taking damage from enemies, and a smaller inventory that can hold only six items.
The game's supporting characters include Barry Burton, Alpha team's weapons expert who provides Jill with additional firepower; Rebecca Chambers, a surviving member of Bravo team who supports Chris with her medical expertise; Albert Wesker, the captain of STARS and leader of Alpha team; and Brad Vickers, the helicopter pilot who sends transmissions to them as he tries to find them in the helicopter.
Minor characters include Joseph Frost, the sixth member of Alpha team whose sudden death sets the story into motion, Enrico Marini, the leader of Bravo team who gives the player the game's most critical plot twist, Richard Aiken, who gives the player a radio used to receive Brad's transmissions, Kenneth Sullivan, a member of Bravo team killed just after Alpha team arrives, and Forest Speyer, whose corpse is found on the balcony by the player.
Story
The game begins on July 24, 1998, after the events of Resident Evil 0. Alpha team locates Bravo team's helicopter, but there are no signs of survivors; only a severed hand is found. While searching the area for further clues, Alpha team is attacked by ferocious dogs, one of which kills one of the team's members, Joseph. Alpha's helicopter pilot, Brad, panics and takes off alone. Pursued by the dogs who killed their colleague, Alpha team is forced to seek refuge within a nearby mansion, which is believed to be abandoned.
With the dogs roaming outside, the four remaining Alpha team members (Wesker, Chris, Jill and Barry) are trapped within. Depending on which character is the player, one of the members of Alpha team is separated from the others during the chase and does not make it to the mansion (Barry if Chris, Chris if Jill). A gunshot rings out, and the player character moves to investigate. At this point, the player takes control of the character and begins to explore the mansion. One of the first discoveries is a member of Bravo team, Kenneth, being eaten by a zombie. While searching the mansion, the character finds the other members of Bravo team, such as Richard Aiken, dying of poison, who gives the character his radio before dying; Forest Speyer, found dead on the balcony; and Enrico Marini, who reveals that one member of the team is a traitor before being shot and killed by an unseen attacker. The character eventually finds the mansion to be riddled with puzzles, traps, and horrors. Scattered documents suggest that a series of illegal experiments were being undertaken on the property by a clandestine research team, under the authority and supervision of the biomedical company Umbrella Corporation. The creatures roaming the mansion and surrounding region are the results of these experiments, which have exposed the mansion's personnel and various animals and insects to a highly contagious and mutagenicbiological agent known as the T-virus.
After navigating a series of underground tunnels, passageways and buildings, the player discovers a secret underground laboratory containing the Umbrella Corporation's experiments, including the Tyrant. In the lab, the player learns that Wesker is a double agent working for Umbrella. Wesker is killed after that by one of the creations. The player finds the other playable character in a cell, put there by Wesker, and manages to get him/her out by activating the self-destruct system. Chris, Jill and the helper character (Rebecca if Chris, Barry if Jill) head for the heliport, but the other two are separated from the player due to more creatures. The player gets up to the heliport and manages to contact Brad and meet the other two survivors there, but they are attacked by the Tyrant, a giant humanoid monster created through prolonged exposure to the T-virus. After the Tyrant is defeated, Chris, Jill and Barry/Rebecca manage to escape the premises in the team helicopter, just as the entire facility is destroyed by explosives through the self-destruct system activated earlier.

[edit]Endings

Resident Evil and its remake are the only games in the franchise to feature multiple endings, and they all end similarly, with the difference being how many people the player character saved. There is no possible way in either game to save all four characters, as Barry is presumed dead in Chris' scenario and Rebecca never meets Jill in hers; however, it is confirmed that both of them survived, as Barry is shown in the epilogue of Resident Evil 3, while in Resident Evil 2 the player may come find a report about Billy Coen's supposed death that Rebecca filed upon returning to Raccoon City.
  • The best endings have the chosen player, Chris and Jill, save both their partner (Barry if Jill, Rebecca if Chris) and the other player character, who is imprisoned in a basement cell for most of the game and destroy the mansion.
  • The second endings have the chosen player only save their partner and destroy the mansion.
  • The third ending has the chosen player only save the other player character, and the mansion remains intact.
  • The worst endings have only the chosen player survive, and the mansion remains intact.
  • Release history

    [edit]Director's Cut

    An updated version of Resident Evil for the PlayStation, titled Resident Evil: Director's Cut, was released on September 1997, a year and a half after the original game's release. Director's Cut was produced to compensate for the delay of the sequel, Resident Evil 2, and was originally bundled with a playable demo of that game.The main addition to Director's Cut is an "arranged" version of the game that changes the location of nearly every vital item in the mansion, as well as the enemy placement. The main characters, as well as Rebecca, are given a new wardrobe and the player's handgun is replaced by an improved model where any shot fired has a random chance of decapitating a zombie, killing it instantly. The original version of the game is included as well, along with a new "beginner" mode where the enemies are easier to kill and the amount of ammunition that can be found by the player is doubled. Additionally, the auto-aim function was restored in all modes, though it is not noted in the in-game controls so the player must accidentally stumble upon it.The North American and European releases of the Director's Cut were marketed as featuring the original, uncensored footage as seen in the Japanese releases. However, the full motion video (FMV) sequences were still censored. Capcom claimed the omission was the result of a localization mistake made by the developers and offered the uncensored intro as a free download from their website. The French and German PAL versions of Director's Cut do feature the uncensored intro FMV in color, however the French and German PAL version lacked the uncensored Kenneth death scene despite having the uncensored introduction FMVs in color. Although the PC version of Resident Evil was not billed as the director's cut version of the game, it is the only version of Resident Evil that has all of the uncensored FMVs, which includes the uncensored introduction, Kenneth death scene and ending as well.

    [edit]Dual Shock Ver.

    A second release of Director's Cut, known as the Dual Shock Ver., was released in Japan and North America. The Dual Shock Ver. featured support for the DualShock controller's analog controls and vibration functions, as well as a new symphonic soundtrack by Mamoru Samuragochi, replacing the original soundtrack by Makoto Tomozawa, Akari Kaida, and Masami Ueda. The Japanese Dual Shock Ver. came packaged with a bonus disc that contained downloadable save data and footage of the Japanese dubbed version of the opening cut scene and other footage, along with gameplay footage of Resident Evil 1.5, the canceled version of Resident Evil 2.
    Resident Evil: Director's Cut Dual Shock Ver. was later released for the PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Portable as a downloadable game available from the PlayStation Network.[14] In Europe, the original Director's Cut was instead made available from the PlayStation Network.

    [edit]Sega Saturn version

    The Sega Saturn version added an unlockable Battle Game minigame in which the player must traverse through a series of rooms from the main game and eliminate all enemies within them with the weapons selected by the player. This minigame features two exclusive enemies not in the main game: a zombie version of Wesker and a gold-colored Tyrant. The player's performance is graded at the end of the minigame. The Saturn version also features exclusive enemy monsters, such as a re-skinned breed of Hunters known as Ticks and a second Tyrant prior to the game's final battle. Exclusive outfits for Jill and Chris were added as well.

    [edit]Windows version

    The Windows version featured the uncensored footage from the Japanese version, but the opening intro is in full color rather than black and white. Support for 3D accelerators was added as well, allowing for much sharper graphics. Two new unlockable weapons were added, a MAC-10 for Jill and an FN Minimi for Chris. New unlockable outfits for Chris and Jill were added as well.

    [edit]Unreleased Game Boy Color version

    Game Boy Color version of Resident Evil was planned,[15] but later canceled by Capcom, citing that the port was poor quality due to the Game Boy's limited hardware.[16] Capcom later released a new game in the series for the platform titled Resident Evil Gaiden. In January 2012, an anonymous person claimed to have a cartridge of the GBC version. The person requested $2,000 before he was willing to leak the rom files.[17] On February 3, 2012, the goal of $2,000 was met, and the ROM files containing an unfinished build of the game were subsequently leaked.[18]
    Deadly Silence
    Nintendo DS port titled Resident Evil: Deadly Silence, released in Japan as Biohazard: Deadly Silence (バイオハザード デッドリーサイレンス Baiohazādo Deddorī Sairensu?) was made to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the series. Deadly Silence includes a "Classic Mode", the original game with minimal enhancements and touch-screen support, and a "Rebirth Mode", containing a greater number of enemies and a series of new puzzles that make use of the platform's specifications.The game makes use of the dual screen display with the top screen used to display the map, along with the player's remaining ammunition and health (determined by the color of the background); while the bottom screen displays the main action, and can be switched to show the player's inventory. The DS version also includes updated play mechanics: the 180-degree turn introduced in Resident Evil 3: Nemesis, along with the knife button and tactical reload from Resident Evil 4. The updated controls are applicable to both Classic and Rebirth modes. Dialog and loading screens can now be skipped. The live-action footage was still censored, even in the game's Japanese release; however, the scene showing Kenneth's decapitated head was kept.In "Rebirth", new puzzles are added that use the system's touch-screen. "Knife Battle" sequences, viewed from a first-person perspective, are also added, in which the player must fend off incoming enemies by swinging the knife via the stylus. One particular puzzle requires the player to resuscitate an injured comrade by blowing into the built-in microphone. The player can also shake off enemies by using the touch screen, performing a melee attack.The game also includes wireless LAN support for up to four players with two different multiplayer game modes. The first is a cooperative mode in which each player must help each other solve puzzles and escape the mansion together. The other is a competitive mode in which the objective is to get the highest score out of all the players by destroying the most monsters, with the tougher monsters being worth more points. There are three playable multiplayer stages and nine playable characters.

    [edit]


Left For Dead

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Left 4 Dead

 left 4 Dead (abbreviated as L4D) is a cooperative first-person shooter arcade-style video game. It was developed by Turtle Rock Studios, which was purchased by Valve Corporation during development. The game uses Valve's proprietary Source engine, and is available for Microsoft WindowsXbox 360 and Mac OS X. Development on the game was completed on November 13, 2008, and two versions were released digitally: A downloadable digital version, released on November 17, 2008, and a digital retail disc version, with a release date determined by region. The digital retail disc version was released in North America and Australia on November 18, 2008; and in Europe and Japan on November 21, 2008.
Set during the aftermath of an apocalyptic pandemic, the game pits its four protagonists—dubbed the "Survivors"—against hordes of the infected. There are four game modes: a single-player mode in which allied characters are controlled by AI; a four-player, co-op campaign mode; an eight-player online versus mode; and a four-player survival mode. In all modes, an artificial intelligence (AI), dubbed the "Director", controls level pacing and item placements, in an attempt to create a dynamic experience and increase replay value.
Left 4 Dead was well received by the industry media upon its release, with praise given for its replay value, focus on cooperative play, and movie-like experience. Several criticisms were aimed at limited level selection and the lack of a narrative. The game has won several publication awards, as well as distinctions from the Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences and British Academy of Film and Television Arts. As was done with Team Fortress 2, Valve supplemented the game with free downloadable content. The first, called the "Survival Pack", was released on April 21, 2009. The second piece of DLC was charged for on Xbox Live and came in the form of a new Campaign entitled "Crash Course," released for both the PC and Xbox 360 on September 29, 2009.
The popularity of the game led to the development of a sequel, Left 4 Dead 2, which was released November 17, 2009. Left 4 Dead 2 was released on Mac OS X via Steam on October 5, 2010, and the original Left 4 Dead was released for the Mac soon after on October 28, 2010. The Mac version of Left 4 Dead 2 incorporated a new map for both Left 4 Dead and Left 4 Dead 2, called "The Sacrifice". Eventually all Left 4 Deadcampaigns were ported over to Left 4 Dead 2 and allowing for cross-platform support between Windows and Mac versions.
Plot
With Zoey forced to kill him, the helicopter crash lands in an industrial district outside the city. Finding an armored delivery truck, the group uses it to make their way to the town of Riverside. However, they find the road blocked, and travel the rest of the way on foot. After an encounter with an infected lunatic in the local church, they discover that the town is overrun, and decide to head to a nearby boathouse for rescue. Contacting a small fishing vessel, they manage to reach the city of Newburg on the other side of the river, only to find much of it in flames. Seeking cover in a large greenhouse, their rest is interrupted when a military C-130 Hercules passes overhead, leading the survivors to travel through the city's business district towards Metro International Airport. Upon arrival, the group see that in an attempt to contain the infection, the military had bombed the airport while infected pilots crash planes in an attempt to land; the runway however is largely intact, allowing the survivors to fuel up and escape in a waiting C-130.Despite this apparent rescue, it crashes as well, and the survivors once again find themselves alone on the outskirts of Allegheny National Forest. Following a series of train tracks through the area, the group find themselves at a functioning, but abandoned, military outpost. After answering a radio transmission, the survivors make their final stand against hordes of infected, before a military APC arrives to transport them to Northeast Safe Zone Echo, supposedly the only uninfected area yet to be overrun. Instead, they are kept at a military installation and informed that even though they are immune, they still carry the virus. They are temporarily held by the military before the base is overrun with infected. The four escape via train and travel south at Bill's insistence; Bill believes that they can find long-term safety from the infected on the islands of the Florida Keys.At the portside town of Rayford, they find a boat but must raise an old rusty bridge powered by an aging generator to get the boat into open waters, assured that the machinery noise will alert a large horde. Bill sacrifices himself in order to restart a generator when the lift jams, so that the others may reach safety. And thus, the remaining three survivors escape on a boat heading out to the sea. Their current location and condition is unknown but it is assumed the three made it to the Florida Keys.
Gameplay
The game is focused on cooperation and team play and thus eschews some "realism" conventions usual in most FPS games of the wider genre; colored outlines of teammates are visible through walls to help players stick together and coordinate their movement. If a survivor falls off a ledge, then they may automatically hang onto it and can only be helped up by another survivor. If a survivor's health is depleted, then they become incapacitated and can only be revived by another survivor, at which point they continue playing with a low amount of health that decreases over time. If a survivor has been incapacitated and revived twice without tending to their wounds, then they will experience distorted black-and-white vision, and the next incapacitation will kill the character. If a survivor takes enough damage while incapacitated, or is not eventually helped up by teammates, then the incapacitated character will die. During "Campaign" mode, if a survivor is killed, then they will respawn in a closet or other enclosed space after a period of time (except during key points in the scenario), but must be freed by another survivor to rejoin the team. Otherwise, the player must wait until the next level.[6] However, if all human player survivors are killed or incapacitated, players will have to restart from the last checkpoint. Survivors can share first-aid kits and pain pills and help each other heal. Left 4 Dead has friendly fire (which causes no damage on the easy difficulty mode), increasing the need for caution around other survivors.Left 4 Dead is a first-person shooter. In campaign mode, the player takes control of one of the survivors; if four human players are not available, then the remaining survivors are AI-controlled bots. They play through the levels fighting off the infected—living humans who have been infected with a rabies-like virus that causes psychosis. The survivors are carriers of the disease, so they do not show signs of any symptoms.[4][5] The survivors communicate by voice commands that are accessed by quick menus, and some may sound off automatically when performing actions such as reloading or spotting infected.[7] Over 1,000 unique lines have been recorded for each survivor.[8] Additional communication of player actions is conveyed through character lights. Also, weapon-mounted flashlights and muzzle flashes help the players in determining whether their companions are shooting, performing melee attacks, reloading or moving. Due to control issues and the likelihood of players using a headset, the Xbox 360 version of Left 4 Dead omits the quick phrases feature.[9]The game is experienced through five campaigns that take place in various urban and rural locales. Multiple visual in-game hints—including license plates, park signs, markings on airport equipment, and lines of dialogue spoken by the survivors—suggest that these locations are inPennsylvania,[10] and similarly a memorial wall giving names of those who have died in the infection (actually names of the game's development team) along with their dates of birth and death suggests that the game takes place in October 2009.[11] Each campaign is divided into five chapters (except Crash Course, which has two chapters) marked by safe rooms, which are checkpoints where players can heal, re-arm and revive characters who were killed.[12] Specifically, the four campaigns are: "No Mercy", an urban setting culminating in a hospital skyscraper; "Death Toll", a small-town and countryside setting; "Dead Air", an airport setting; and "Blood Harvest", a woodland and farm setting. A two-level campaign, "Crash Course", was released on September 29, and is set in the outskirts of a small industrial town. The levels have distinct beginnings and ends, but there are a number of alternate routes to follow with more supplies, helping to create a sense of non-linearity.[13] In the final chapter of each campaign, the players must defend a position from an onslaught of infected until rescue arrives.[8] Each campaign typically lasts between 20 and 75 minutes depending on the difficulty level. Both platform versions of the game utilize an achievement system.
Survivor characters
WeaponsThere are four playable human characters in the game:[15] Francis, a stereotypical biker (voiced by Vince Valenzuela); Bill, a Vietnam Veteran (voiced by Jim French); Zoey, a university student (voiced by Jen Taylor); andLouis, a district Account Manager (voiced by Earl Alexander).[16] Louis' profession is now listed as a Junior Systems Analyst in the IT department for Franklin Brothers in Philadelphia, keeping in line with the comic released for "The Sacrifice" DLC.[17][18][19][20] Early plans were for players to be randomly assigned to characters but in the final release, players can choose any character—provided that the character has not already been selected—or be randomly assigned an unselected character.[8] Aside from appearances, all of the characters play exactly the same in-game. Survivors are armed with various firearms. Each player starts the game with a semiautomatic pistol.[21] It may be reloaded an unlimited number of times and is the only weapon that the survivor can use when they are incapacitated. When a second pistol is found, the player can dual wield them, also with unlimited ammo. At the beginning of each campaign, the player can choose between a submachine gun and a pump-action shotgun. As the survivors progress through a campaign, more powerful weapons can be found: the fully automatic assault rifle (an upgrade to the submachine gun), a semi-automatic shotgun (an upgrade to the pump-action shotgun), and a scoped hunting rifle. A flashlight that can be toggled on and off is mounted on each firearm, with the exception of additional pistols. In addition to firearms, a player can also carry three other items in their inventory: improvised grenades (either a Molotov cocktail or a pipe bomb modified with an attached smoke alarm designed to attract the infected to it before it explodes);[21] a first aid kit, which can be used to heal any survivor and pain pills, which provide temporary health that depletes gradually and quicker with damage from infected, and can be handed to teammates for later use. Regardless of what weapon or item a player is using, a melee attack can be used to shove away any infected within reach. Also available are environmental weapons, such as gas cans, propane cylinders, and oxygen tanks, all of which explode when shot. These environmental weapons can be picked up, moved, and used as a melee weapon by the survivors, but while carrying an object they cannot use their weapons or health items. Strategically placed minigun turrets are also encountered at various locations throughout the different maps.
Game modes
Left 4 Dead contains four game modes: campaign, versus, survival, and single-player. The cooperative campaign consists of up to four human-controlled survivors who attempt to make their way between safe rooms and eventually to rescue. In this mode, the special infected are controlled by the AI. In a versus campaign, each team of one to four players plays each chapter of the campaign as both survivor and infected, swapping sides once per chapter.[30] Unlike campaign mode, dead survivors do not respawn. If at least one player-controlled survivor finishes the level, the survivor team earns 100 points as well as bonus points based on their health and the health items in their inventory. These points are then multiplied by the chapter's difficulty level, and the number of survivors who finished. If all player-controlled survivors are killed, the survivor team only earns points according to their average progress through the chapter and the difficulty multiplier.[31] Survival mode consists of a timed challenge where players try to survive as long as possible against a never-ending flood of the infected, added in April 2009 in the Survival Pack downloadable content.[32] Single-player mode is similar to campaign mode, but played offline with three AI-controlled bots as the other survivors. On Xbox 360, other players can join in on the same console to turn single player into an offline co-op game. The game can also be played through a system link, or local area network. Players have also discovered a way to do splitscreen co-op play with the PC version.[33]
Production
Development on Left 4 Dead started in mid-2005.[34] Turtle Rock Studios aimed to create a horror film-inspired game that merges single player games' character-driven narrative structure with multiplayer games' social interaction and high replayability.[9] The game was first revealed in the Christmas 2006 publication of PC Gamer UK with a six-page article describing a playthrough at Turtle Rock Studios headquarters. A teaser was released with The Orange Box. The game was first playable at the Showdown 2007 LAN in San Jose and at QuakeCon 2007Turtle Rock Studiosannounced Left 4 Dead on November 20, 2006,[35] and was acquired by Valve Corporation on January 10, 2008, because of the game and long-standing relationship between the companies.[36] The game opened up to pre-purchasing on Valve's Steam system on October 15, 2008. To give Left 4 Dead significant exposure, Valve financed a $10-million marketing campaign for the game in the United States and Europe, with advertisements appearing on television, print, websites and outdoor placements in many cities. Valve also hosted photo contests called, "Dude, where's my thumb?" offering copies of Left 4 Dead to people who submitted the best picture involving zombies or the outdoor advertising.
Development
Left 4 Dead uses the 2008 version of Valve's Source engine, with improvements such as multi-core processor support and physics-based animation to more realistically portray hair and clothing, and to improve physics interaction with enemies when shot or shoved in different body parts.[39] Animation was also improved to allow characters to lean realistically when moving in curved paths. Rendering and artificial intelligence were scaled up to allow for a greater number of enemies who can navigate the world in better ways, such as climbing, jumping, or breaking obstacles.[40][41] Lighting was enhanced with new self-shadowing normal mapping and advanced shadow rendering that is important to convey information about the environment and player actions.[9][42] Wet surfaces and fog are used to create mood.[43][44] Many kinds of post processingcinematic visual effects inspired by horror movies have been added to the game. There is dynamic color correction that accentuates details based on importance, contrast and sharpening to focus attention on critical areas, film grain to expose details or imply details in dark areas andvignetting to evoke tension and a horror-film look.[9]Left 4 Dead underwent many phases of development; influenced by playtesting, Turtle Rock Studios removed many of the features that were originally in the game. In the initial phases, there was another special infected, called the "screamer", which had no attacks but upon spotting a survivor would run to a safe place and then emit a loud scream that attracted a horde of infected. This infected class was removed, but its ability to attract the horde was incorporated into the boomer's vomit.[45] A persistent merit/demerit system was envisioned to provide positive feedback for good behavior, such as aiding a fallen teammate; and negative feedback for poor behavior, such as shooting a teammate. This would provide a score to rank a player's effectiveness as a teammate,[46] but this system was removed late in the development of the game in favor of immediate, non-persistent feedback displayed in-game. Another significant element removed was a long introduction between campaigns; because the game is designed for replayability, it was difficult to hold the player's attention for repeated viewings of cut scenes, so they were dropped in favor of a sparse narrative.[47] Also, the game started out with one big city design with many routes for the survivors, but playtesters were confused when they began to play, and later they always chose the same route; ultimately Turtle Rock Studios cut the city maps into the first "No Mercy" and "Dead Air" campaigns.Certain Affinity assisted Turtle Rock Studios with the Xbox 360 version of the game.[49] The Xbox 360 version of Left 4 Dead has the same game modes as the PC version but has additional features such as support for Split screen, allowing for two players to play offline and online from the same console,and System Link play.Split-screen mode can also be achieved on the PC version, but it requires console commands and may require the modification of controller configuration files; and it is not officially supported.[52] Both versions of the game have a new matchmaking system to simplify the process of finding other players. This new server management system was met with a negative reaction from PC server operators, who, with this system, had very little control over their servers. This led to Valve releasing a series of patches that allowed server operators to remove their server from the matchmaking "pool" of servers or make private servers.[54] Valve runs dedicated servers for both versions of the game.

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Counter-Strike: Global Offensive

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Counter-Strike: Global Offensive (abbreviated as CS:GO) is an online first-person shooter developed by Valve Corporation and Hidden Path Entertainment, who also maintained Counter-Strike: Source after its release. It is the fourth game in the Counter-Strike franchise, excluding Counter-Strike Neo and Online.
Global Offensive was released on August 21, 2012, and made available for Microsoft Windows and OS X on Steam, Xbox Live Arcade, and a US-only version on PlayStation Network. It features classic content, such as revamped versions of old maps; as well as brand new maps, characters and game modes. Cross-platform multiplayer was planned between Windows, OS X and PSN players,[4] but was ultimately limited to Windows and Mac OS because of the differences in update-frequency between the systems.[5] The PSN version offers three input control methods, which include using either the DualShock 3 controller, PlayStation Move or USB keyboard/mouse.

Gameplay

Like the previous games in the series, Global Offensive is an objective-based multiplayer first-person shooter. Each player joins either the Terrorist or Counter-Terrorist team and attempts to complete objectives or eliminate the enemy team. The game operates in short rounds that end when all players on one side are dead or a team's objective is completed. For most game modes, once a player dies, they must wait until the round ends to respawn. Players purchase weapons and equipment at the beginning of every round with money awarded based on their performance. Completing objectives or killing enemies earns the player money while negative actions, like killing a teammate or hostage, takes money away from the player. In addition, when a round ends all players receive some amount of money, with players on the winning team receiving substantially more.[6]
Global Offensive adds new weapons and equipment not seen in previous installments, most notably the firebomb for each side (Molotovs for Terrorists and incendiary grenades for Counter-Terrorists). These temporarily cover a small area in fire, dealing damage to anyone passing through.[7][8]

Game modes

Global Offensive features five game modes for online play:
  • Classic Casual and Competitive: Counter-Strike's most well-known game mode, both involving Defuse and Hostage missions.[9] At the start of each round, players can purchase weapons and gear with money earned from various actions, from assisting on kills to completing objectives. For both mission types, a round ends when either a team completes an objective, or eliminates the other team.
    • Defuse: the Terrorists must plant a C4 explosive at one of two designated bombsites; the Counter-Terrorists must prevent the bomb from exploding.[10]
    • Hostage: the Counter-Terrorists must rescue hostages from the Terrorists, and bring them to an extraction point; the Terrorists must prevent the hostages from escaping. If a Terrorist or Counter-Terrorist kills a hostage, they will suffer a heavy cash penalty.[11]
  • Arms Race: a deathmatch-based mode where each player is rewarded for each kill with a new weapon, with the first player to get a kill with every weapon in a predetermined set winning the game.[12][13]
  • Demolition: a round-based mode that removes weapon and equipment purchasing, instead rewarding players who manage at least one kill by giving the next weapon in a predetermined set of weapons.[14][15]
  • Deathmatch (added on November 12, 2012):[16] a mode consisting of 10-minute matches. Players must gain the highest possible score by earning kills with different weapons. The number of points from a kill depend on the weapon. Players may also take advantage of bonus timers for different weapons, using them to score extra points.[16][17]
Global Offensive also offers two offline modes: Offline with Bots, which offers the same game modes with AI-controlled bots; and a Weapons Course for inexperienced and veteran players alike.[18]

Online play Global Offensive supports matchmaking and leaderboards for all online game modes, provided by Steam.[19] The provided online service offers the ability to filter by game modes, maps and an inbuilt steam friend system. Valve also employees the Valve Anti-Cheat and can automatically remove and ban players from the Valve online network. To connect closely skilled players for an enjoyable experience an Elo rating system prioritizes matching players by skill.[4] Global Offensive also supports private dedicated servers that the player may connect to through the community server menu in-game. These servers may be heavily modified and can appear wholly different from the base game.

Development

System requirements

Requirements
Microsoft Windows[1]
Operating system Windows 7/Vista/XP
CPU Intel Core 2 Duo E6600 or AMD Phenom X3 8750 processor or better
Memory 1 GB on XP / 2 GB on Vista
Hard drive space At least 7.6 GB of space
Graphics hardware 256 MB or more, DirectX 9-compatible with Pixel Shader 3.0 support
Network Internet connection required for online multiplayer connection
Mac OS X[1]
Operating system Mac OS X 10.6.6 or higher
CPU Intel Core Duo Processor (2GHz or better)
Memory 2 GB
Hard drive space At least 7.6 GB of space
Graphics hardware ATI Radeon HD 2400 or NVidia 8600M or better
Network Internet connection required for online multiplayer connection
Global Offensive began as a port of Counter-Strike: Source to Xbox Live Arcade by Hidden Path Entertainment. During the development Valve saw the opportunity to turn the port into a full game and expand on Counter-Strike's gameplay. Global Offensive began development in March 2010[20] and was revealed on August 12, 2011.[21] The closed beta started on November 30, 2011, and was initially restricted to around ten thousand people who received a key at events Valve attended to showcase Global Offensive. After issues such as client and server stability were addressed the beta was opened up to progressively more and more people (approximately 100,000 beta keys were given out as of 4 July 2012), until the beta became open for anybody to join and play.[22] Before the public beta Valve invited professional Counter-Strike and Counter-Strike: Source players to playtest the game and give feedback.[9]
At E3 2012, Valve announced that Global Offensive would be released August 21, 2012 on all platforms, with an open beta starting roughly a month before that.[23][24]
[hide] Reception
Aggregate scores
Aggregator Score
GameRankings 82.91% (PC)[25]
79% (XBLA)[26]
78.62% (PS3)[27]
Metacritic 83/100 (PC)[28]
79/100 (XBLA)[29]
80/100 (PSN)[30]
Review scores
Publication Score
Eurogamer 9/10 (PC)[31]
G4 4/5 (PC)[32]
GameSpy 4/5 stars (PC)[33]
IGN 8/10 (PC)[34]
Official Xbox Magazine (UK) 8/10 (XBLA)[35]
PC Gamer US 84/100 (PC)[36]
Counter-Strike: Global Offensive has been met with generally positive reviews from professional critics. Aggregate review website Metacritic assigned the PC version an overall score of 83 out of 100 based on 38 reviews from professional critics.[28]
Evan Lahti from PC Gamer noted that the majority of new official maps in CS:GO were only for Arms Race or Demolition game modes; while Classic maps were only given "smart adjustments" to minor details.[36] GameSpy's Mike Sharkey pointed out that CS:GO provides very little new content; and that the Elo rating system seems ineffective, what "with so many new players of various skill levels logging on for the first time this week".[33] Destructoid gave the game a very positive review, awarding it 95/100, saying that it "delivers on the promise of a faithful, polished, and better looking Counter-Strike..."[37]

Reception

Reception
Aggregate scores
Aggregator Score
GameRankings 82.91% (PC)[25]
79% (XBLA)[26]
78.62% (PS3)[27]
Metacritic 83/100 (PC)[28]
79/100 (XBLA)[29]
80/100 (PSN)[30]
Review scores
Publication Score
Eurogamer 9/10 (PC)[31]
G4 4/5 (PC)[32]
GameSpy 4/5 stars (PC)[33]
IGN 8/10 (PC)[34]
Official Xbox Magazine (UK) 8/10 (XBLA)[35]
PC Gamer US 84/100 (PC)[36]
Counter-Strike: Global Offensive has been met with generally positive reviews from professional critics. Aggregate review website Metacritic assigned the PC version an overall score of 83 out of 100 based on 38 reviews from professional critics.[28]
Evan Lahti from PC Gamer noted that the majority of new official maps in CS:GO were only for Arms Race or Demolition game modes; while Classic maps were only given "smart adjustments" to minor details.[36] GameSpy's Mike Sharkey pointed out that CS:GO provides very little new content; and that the Elo rating system seems ineffective, what "with so many new players of various skill levels logging on for the first time this week".[33] Destructoid gave the game a very positive review, awarding it 95/100, saying that it "delivers on the promise of a faithful, polished, and better looking Counter-Strike..."[37]